Chinese Civil War (1927-1950) – The Chinese Civil War was fought between the Communist Chinese Communist Party (CCP), and the Nationalist Kuomintang (KMT) for legitimacy as the government of China.
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The war began in April 1927 with the “Northern Expedition” (國民革命軍北伐) and mostly ended in 1950. The Chinese Civil War was the third largest war in all of the time after World War II and World War I. After Japan’s defeat in World War II, the war between the CCP and KMT started again in 1946. The Nationalists (KMT) lose the war and escape to the island of Taiwan. While CCP took control of most of China, they set up Taipei as the temporary capital of China (ROC). About two million Chinese fled to Taiwan in late 1949. The Communist Party of China (CCP) established Beijing as the capital of The People’s Republic of China (PRC).
The Soviet occupation of Manchuria took place after the Red Army invaded the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo in August 1945 and would continue until the last of the Soviet forces left in May 1946. The Soviets began withdrawing from Manchuria within three weeks of Japan’s surrender. The resumption of the Chinese Civil War in early 1946 prompted the Red Army to finish the withdrawal.
The current Constitution of the Republic of China came into effect on 25 December 1947, and the first Legislative session convened in Nanjing on 18 May 1948, with 760 members. In January 1948, the country’s 47 provinces, municipalities, 18 Mongolian Leagues, Tibetan area, domestic occupational groups, women’s organisations, and overseas Chinese regions, making up nearly 200 million voters voted for their legislators. Because of the Chinese Civil War, the elections could not be held in Communist controlled areas, the National Government, through the supplementary regulations, had the people living nearest to the areas elect representation for the areas.
Jiang Weiguo (Chiang Wei-kuo, 蒋纬国, October 6, 1916 – September 22, 1997) was an adopted son of Chiang Kai-shek and adoptive brother of the later President Chiang Ching-kuo. During the Chinese Civil War, Jiang employed tactics he had learned whilst studying in the German Wehrmacht. He was in charge of a M4 Sherman tank battalion during the Huaihai Campaign against Mao Zedong’s troops, scoring some early victories. He retreated from Shanghai to Taiwan and moved his tank regiment to Taiwan. [wikipedia]
Li Zongren was a prominent Guangxi warlord and Kuomintang (KMT) military commander during the Northern Expedition, Second Sino-Japanese War and Chinese Civil War.
He Yingqin (何应钦, April 2, 1890 – October 21, 1987) was one of the most senior generals of the Kuomintang (KMT) during Republican China, and a close ally of Chiang Kai-shek.
Bai Chongxi (18 March 1893 – 1 December 1966; 白崇禧) was a Chinese general in the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China (ROC) and a prominent Chinese Nationalist leader of Hui ethnicity and of Muslim faith.
Yan Xishan (8 October 1883 – 22 July 1960) was a warlord who served in the government of the Republic of China. After the Second World War, Yan’s forces (including thousands of former Japanese troops) held out against the Communists during the Chinese Civil War for four years. They held out until April 1949, after the Nationalist government had lost control of northern China, allowing the PLA to encircle and besiege his forces. The area surrounding the provincial capital of Taiyuan was the longest to resist Communist control.
Yan Xishan focused his efforts on attempting to promote greater cooperation between Li Zongren and Chiang Kai-shek. Li eventually attempted to form a government, including both Chiang’s supporters and critics, with Yan as premier. Despite Yan’s efforts, Chiang refused to allow Li access to more than a fraction of the wealth that Chiang had sent to Taiwan, and officers loyal to Chiang refused to follow Li’s orders, frustrating efforts to coordinate Nationalist defenses and to stabilize the currency. By late 1949 the Nationalists’ position had become desperate. [wikipedia]
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