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War images of the Battle of Shanghai
The Battle of Shanghai (淞滬會戰), “Aka Battle” of Songhu was one of the largest, bloodiest and most violent battles fought during the Sino-Japanese conflict and ended after more than three months of fighting with the Japanese victory and the retreat of Chinese troops.
During the three-month battle, Chinese and Japanese troops fought in downtown Shanghai, in the outlying towns, and on the beaches of the Jiangsu coast. The casualty rate of the Chinese army group was more than fifty percent.
On October 25, 1937, Chinese troops withdrew from downtown Shanghai, which they had held for almost three months.
On January 28, 1932, the Japanese invaded Shanghai. More than 10,000 businesses and hundreds of factories were destroyed. More than 18,000 civilians were killed, wounded, or reported missing. In 1937, the Battle of Shanghai resulted in the occupation of Chinese-administered areas just outside the International Settlements and the French Concession. The Japanese occupied the foreign concessions in 1941 until they surrendered in 1945.
The battle was triggered by the Ōyama Incident. On August 9, Lieutenant Isao Ōyama attempting to force a guard post at Hongqiao Airport killed a guard and died himself in a firefight with Chinese forces (Chinese Peace Preservation Corps). The access to the airport was a violation of the terms reached between China and Japan for the ceasefire. The reasons for Ōyama’s violation are not known.
Regardless, the incident increased tensions between Japanese and Chinese forces on the ground. The next day the Japanese consul general dismantled Chinese defenses in the city and declared that the Ōyama incident represented a humiliation for the country. Japan, therefore, sent new reinforcements to the troops stationed in Shanghai. On August 12, representatives of the United Kingdom, the United States, Italy, and France, along with China and Japan attended a conference to discuss the terms of the ceasefire.
Japan demanded the withdrawal of Chinese troops from Shanghai, but the Chinese representative Yu Hung-chun asserted that the terms had already been violated by Japan. On August 13 the first clashes began and increased in intensity within a few hours. The Japanese attacked several centers in the city and crossed the Bazi bridge. Chiang Kai-shek ordered Zhang Zhizhong to start the Chinese offensive the next day. On August 14, the Chinese government proclaimed a war of resistance (自衛抗戰聲明書).
The battle can be divided into three phases and involved nearly 1 million soldiers. The battle lasted nearly 4 months and marked the withdrawal of Chinese troops from the region.
Images of the Battle for Shanghai
topics: war images in China,
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