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Vegetarianism in China: Between Past and Sustainable Future

Celebration of October 1st: World Vegetarian Day and Vegetarianism in China.

October 1st Celebrating World Vegetarian Day For a Better Ecology and a Healthier Society
World Vegetarian Day International Vegetarian Week and Vegetarian Awareness Month

  • In 2013, 4-5% of China’s population, translating to 50-70 million individuals, adhered to a vegetarian lifestyle. This figure grew notably after the Covid pandemic.

Every year on October 1, people worldwide celebrate World Vegetarian Day. The International Vegetarian Union adopted it in 1978, following its creation by the North American Vegetarian Society in 1977 “to promote the joy, compassion, and life-enhancing possibilities of vegetarianism.” This day aims to spread awareness about the ethical, environmental, health, and humanitarian benefits of a vegetarian lifestyle. The month of October is designated as Vegetarian Awareness Month, beginning on October 1 and concluding on November 1 with World Vegan Day. Vegetarian Awareness Month has also been referred to as “Reverence for Life” Month, “Month of Vegetarian Food,” among many other names.

Everyone has the potential to contribute to global change through conscious and simple choices. This day serves as an incentive for individuals new to vegetarianism to try meatless food (even for a day) and learn about its many advantages. Every year on October 1st, World Vegetarian Day ushers in a month of celebrations, potlucks, speeches, food tasting displays, and more. It’s the ideal opportunity for vegetarians and those transitioning to plant-based diets to honor their compassionate, healthful dietary choices. Our eating decisions significantly impact the environment. No other industry emits more methane and nitrous oxide than animal agriculture. The primary cause of deforestation and a catastrophic level of water and land pollution is the raising of animals for sustenance. On World Vegetarian Day, individuals are encouraged to spread a message of compassion, spend time with their neighbors, and devise creative ways to inform others about the benefits of a plant-based diet. Realizing the link between our dietary choices and their impact on the environment is a crucial and significant discovery. This understanding empowers us to contribute to a more sustainable future and a cleaner, better, and more compassionate earth simply by altering the way we eat.

 “A man can live and be healthy without killing animals for food; therefore, if he eats meat, he participates in taking animal life merely for the sake of his appetite.” Leo Tolstoj

Number of Vegetarians by Country
Number of Vegetarians by Country, source

International Vegetarian Week

Several events promoting a vegetarian lifestyle take place globally during International Vegetarian Week (IVW), spanning October 1 to 7. The kickoff is World Vegetarian Day on October 1.  Various nations and organizations, from Australia to the United Kingdom, have proposed Vegetarian Weeks over the years. These initiatives were chiefly orchestrated by national organizations with little to no international coordination, resulting in varying dates across countries. A significant change occurred around the 38th IVU World Vegetarian Congress in 2008, when activists from different nations decided to organize international campaigns to establish an annual International Vegetarian Week from October 1 to 7. The first IVW was promoted in about 13 different countries worldwide that same year, with the number of participating countries growing steadily in subsequent years. Traditionally, religiously virtuous vegetarians have observed the World Week of Prayer for Animals during International Vegetarian Week. This observance spans the first full week of October from 1 to 7, plus two full weekends, typically flanking October 4, the Feast Day of St. Francis. Although the World Week of Prayer for Animals often coincides with International Vegetarian Week, cultural, ideological, and political factors sometimes preclude its mention in some International Vegetarian Week announcements.

“If slaughterhouses had glass walls, everyone would be vegetarian.” Paul McCartney

Vegetarianism in China

Meat-free days: Meatless Monday and Meatless Friday

Vegetarian or meat-free days are established to limit or forbid consuming meat on particular days of the week. The most popular days are Mondays and Fridays. Additionally, some movements encourage weekly, monthly, or even lifelong meat abstinence. Reintroducing meat-free days is a strategy used to promote vegetarianism or veganism, minimize industrial farming, combat anthropogenic climate change, and enhance human and animal welfare.

Meatless Monday is a global movement that urges individuals to completely abstain from meat on Mondays in order to better their own health as well as the health of the world. A 15% reduction in meat intake, or the equivalent of one day per week, lowers the chance of developing chronic diseases that can be prevented and has a significant beneficial environmental impact (significantly reducing ecological harm from the activities associated with meat production, transport, or distribution). The Healthy Monday program includes Meatless Monday. Every Monday, “Healthy Monday,” promotes making healthy choices.

Other than fish, people have historically abstained from eating meat for religious reasons (such as during the Friday Fast): “abstinence from meat one day a week is a universal act of penitence.” In the past, Anglican and Catholic nations regarded Friday as a meat-free day and strictly prohibited the consumption of meat on days associated with Lent. In addition to the Fridays of the year, Ash Wednesday, the first day of the penitential season of Lent, is the first customary day of fasting and meat abstention in Western Christianity.

Carnival, the Western Christian holiday that precedes the liturgical season of Lent, serves as a reminder of this earlier custom. The Latin words carnis (meaning meat or flesh; ablative: carne) and “levare” (meaning to remove) were combined to create the Italian word “Carnevale.” Thus, “carnevale” literally translates as “remove meat.” It refers to the Tuesday that comes before Ash Wednesday, the start of Lent, the customary Christian period of 40 days leading up to Easter that honors the 40 days that Jesus fasted in the desert and calls for a fast from meat and other sensual indulgences. So today was the day to indulge in those last pleasures. The same day is referred to as “Mardi Gras” (French for “Fat Tuesday”). as “Shrove Tuesday” is also known.

Meat-free days have also been observed due to wartime rationing or in states with failing economies, perhaps for this last reason, meat is associated with economic well-being, with opulence, and for some, giving it up seems almost like declaring a condition of economic disadvantage.

“Animals are creatures of this earth, they are our brothers and therefore they should not be considered objects at our disposal. They are living beings who can love and suffer and therefore we must treat them just like brothers, like younger brothers. We have a more powerful brain, but it doesn’t mean that, for this reason, we have to abuse them.” Margherita Hack

Vegetarianism in China

Vegetarianism and veganism are growing trends in China. Public Radio International estimated and calculated in 2013 that 4-5% of China’s population was vegetarian, representing over 50- 70 million inhabitants. Chinese diets have changed significantly as a result of the COVID-19 outbreak in China, which inspired a move toward vegetarianism and veganism. According to a poll of Chinese citizens, many people changed their diets to be more plant-based during the lockdown, in part due to worries about the safety of the meat being tainted. Wet marketplaces selling live poultry and mammals for consumption have historically been vectors for the transmission of disease in China, some identifying the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market in Wuhan as the source of COVID-19.

For instance, after COVID-19 was found in salmon imported from Norway sold at the Beijing Seafood Market, south China’s largest aquatic market, consumption of salmon fell there, prompting several vendors to stop selling salmon. Large chains across China have started to provide vegan options on their menus in response to these consumer preferences. In addition, several survey participants said that they changed their diets in order to reduce weight.

I think we should take school children to see what slaughterhouses are. The slaughterhouses were once in the city, today they have taken them far away from the cities and no one knows what is happening anymore. For children, meat is a nice cellophane wrapper found in supermarkets and they don’t even know the suffering that has been caused to the animals that provided the meat.” Margherita Hack

Vegetarianism in Chinese history

Classical Chinese writings suggested a time of meat fasting before beginning tasks of high significance or of religious relevance. Occasionally, especially on the day before Chinese New Year, people usually refrain from eating meat. Although it is more typical among followers of Chinese folk religions, many atheists also engage in this practice.

Vegetarianism in China has its roots in the Taoist and Confucian asceticism known as Zhai (斋), which originally emerged during the Spring and Autumn period, which spans roughly 770 to 476 BCE. According to the dictionary, Zhai (斋) is the “practice of purifying the body and mind by refraining from disturbing thoughts and stimulating foods (including meat) during periods of mourning or in advance of prayer ceremonies.” However, in the early stages of the practice of Zhai asceticism, meat abstinence was not initially considered to be the norm. The Book of Etiquette and Ceremonial contains the first documentation of explicit vegetarian ceremonial activities around this time, according to Wong.

Vegetarianism expanded after the spread of Buddhism during the Tang dynasty (618-906), despite being widely practiced in China already. Buddhist monks are not allowed to kill animals for food or accept meat as offerings since Buddhism promotes nonviolence and unending compassion for all living things. Vegetarianism flourished under the Song dynasty as agricultural technology advanced and made it possible to cultivate a wider range of fruits, vegetables, and grains. The first vegetarian eatery opened during this time, and the first vegetarian cookbook was also published. This period also saw the introduction of the first similar meats in China.

“At the base of everything, there is this wrong idea that you can’t do without meat. We need to change our mentality, make people understand that we can live very well without it.” Margherita Hack

There are two different kinds of “vegetarianism”: Buddhist vegetarianism is founded on the dual principles of taming one’s own senses and abstaining from killing, while Taoist vegetarianism is based on a concept of purity.

It wasn’t until the Republican Era, which lasted from 1912 to 1949, that vegetarianism in China saw substantial changes. During this time, vegetarianism moved beyond the Buddhist narrative and sought science and philosophy as its theoretical underpinnings. Elite officials, revolutionaries, and businesspeople of the era were the driving forces behind the first secular Chinese vegetarian movement, which was founded by Wu Tingfang and Sun Yat-sen.

These activists worked to popularize the language of Western modern science to explain food, nutrition, and health because they saw the building of a modern state and the transformation of China’s national character as larger political goals. They thought that promoting vegetarianism would enable China to focus more resources on defending its sovereignty and battling oppression from abroad. However, they were unable to influence the eating practices of the day with their secular concept of vegetarianism.

Meat became a luxury for the majority of Chinese households after Mao Zedong founded the People’s Republic of China in 1949. The situation changed when the economy was opened up and reformed in the 1970s and 1980s, making meat more accessible and affordable for regular Chinese citizens. The absence of meat in the Chinese diet began to be associated with malnutrition. Additionally, the Chinese Communist Party hindered the expansion of Western vegan and vegetarian movements within Chinese society. However, there’s a tradition among some Chinese individuals to observe a vegetarian diet on the first and fifteenth days of each lunar month, known as 初一 and 十五 respectively.

Vegetarianism in the Third Millennium in China

The rising middle class associating the consumption of pork with wealth and prosperity, for this reason Vegan and vegetarian movements in China have been met with mild skepticism. Despite China’s governmental secularism, Buddhism plays a significant impact in influencing attitudes about vegetarianism. Only 18% of people are thought to be Buddhists, yet another 21% incorporate Buddhist principles into their everyday lives.

The second vegetarian movement emerged in China in the 2010s as a reaction to consumerism, health concerns, and environmental destruction. Since then, vegetarianism and veganism have become more popular, especially with younger people. The Party’s promotion of vegetarianism and veganism also made a big impression in the 2010s. Concerns about public health and greenhouse gas emissions have led the Chinese Communist Party to advise people to reduce their meat consumption.

China holds a significant share of a thriving and expanding business, accounting for 53% of the estimated $16 billion worldwide meat substitute market. Plant-based meat substitutes are produced by businesses like Zrou and La Mian Shuo in China, which has a sizable domestic market for plant proteins (GMA, 2022). The Foreign Agricultural Service of the USDA found that since 2019, about 12 new plant-based meat businesses have successfully launched in China. In addition, China is a significant exporter of raw materials and plant proteins used in the manufacture of imitation meats (GMA, 2022).

Since producing milk from animals was formerly difficult due to contaminated water supplies and lax hygiene requirements, milk substitute is another significant market in China. As big-brand coffee shops like Starbucks and Luckin proliferated in China, the demand for milk rose, connected to an expansion of the country’s coffee sector. Since then, the market for milk substitutes in China has grown, with sales of milk substitutes rising by 20% between 2015 and 2017, with soy milk remaining the market leader.

Veganism in China
A simple change in your diet has the potential to reduce the chances of developing chronic or degenerative diseases

Health Effects Caused by Meat Consumption in China

It has been asserted that the rise in per capita intake of animal products has adversely affected the health of Chinese citizens. In China, a notable shift occurred during the 2010s, moving from simpler plant-based diets to diets richer in animal proteins. The World Health Organization has noted how “changing lifestyles” have impacted Chinese dietary practices, as evidenced by the rising obesity rates among adults, which increased by about 70% between 2002 and 2012. This rise has escalated the risk of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cancer. Evidence also suggests that genetic factors predispose Chinese individuals to obesity-related issues, illustrating the negative health effects of China’s dietary changes. The China Study, authored by T. Colin Campbell and Thomas M. Campbell and published in 2005, underscores the association between the consumption of animal products and a heightened risk of health issues. The Campbells conducted research in numerous Chinese regions, demonstrating that rural populations with predominantly plant-based diets experienced fewer health issues and tended to live longer.

Older Chinese people will tell you that the Lunar New Year used to be one of the rare days when meat dishes were served for dinner. Scientists have found that poor health affects also people who don’t consume excessive amounts of meat. Researchers from Chinese University of Hong Kong, University of Exeter, and Peking University found that people in China’s poorer agricultural regions who consume less meat die from air pollution caused by raising livestock. According to the researchers, increased meat production may have contributed to the approximately 66,000 premature deaths caused by fine particulate pollution in China in 2010. Due to China’s changing diet, the air is toxic.

As local demand grew, beef production increased more than five times to 80 megatonnes between 1980 and 2010. According to the study’s calculations, food changes rather than population growth were responsible for more than 90% of the higher output. Ammonia is a byproduct of raising livestock and growing crops for livestock and is created from fertilizers and animal waste. The gas is a significant component of PM2.5 pollution, which is made up of tiny particles with a width of less than 2.5 micrometers that can deeply enter the lungs and cause asthma attacks and heart attacks. According to the findings, the switch to a meat-heavy diet was responsible for nearly half of this rise. Comparatively, little over 25% of the increase in ammonia was caused by the population growth in China. Professor William Chen, director of the Food Science and Technology Programme at Singapore’s Nanyang Technological University, who was not involved in the study, said that the study helps to understand how food production affects the ecosystem, along with methane emissions from rice fields and deforestation.

Nine Emperor Gods Festival
The Vegetarian Festival, also known as the Nine Emperor Gods Festival (九皇星君/九皇大帝), is a nine-day Taoist celebration that begins on the eve of the ninth lunar month of the Chinese calendar. The Peranakans (not the entire Overseas Chinese community) celebrate it primarily in Southeast Asian nations like Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and Thailand. Around World Vegetarian Day, the ninth lunar month begins.

From the Yulin Dog Meat Festival to Sustainable Nutrition

 The controversial Yulin festival (Dog Meat Festival), obviously due to its atrocities, has put into second light the fact that the Chinese population has a significant portion of people who love animals and treat them as if they were their own children, as well as a part that has chosen precisely for this feeling of compassion to undertake a vegetarian or vegan style diet. Sadly, for the sake of consistency, we should understand that the slaughter involving thousands of dogs and cats killed and slaughtered is no different from the brutality that all animals in the world suffer in factory slaughterhouses.

The battles of animal rights activists and environmentalists have highlighted how “animal welfare” on the label represents “greenwashing” and how farming, whether intensive or in the prairies, involves suffering pollution, and an enormous waste of land, energy, and water that is now unsustainable for our planet.

Alberto Angela, a paleontologist, scientific communicator, journalist, and television presenter, discussed the importance of plant-based nutrition to combat climate change in a special episode of Ulisse 2021, featuring the extraordinary participation of his father, Piero Angela (1928 -2022), who was also a scientific communicator, journalist, television presenter, and essayist. On this topic, many years earlier, Umberto Veronesi (1925 – 2016), an Italian oncologist and politician, said “Humanity risks a destructive chain effect: exhaustion of energy, drinking water, basic foods to satisfy incorrect food consumerism. In China and India, meat consumption has increased, just as it does not stop in the West. The math doesn’t add up. Six billion inhabitants, three billion cattle for slaughter (each kilo of meat burns 20 thousand liters of water), 15 billion birds for food, production of fuels from cereals. Soon there will be no more food. Wheat, soya, rice, and corn cost more and more to feed farm animals. We must stop now. First step: become vegetarian, or almost.

Parkinson in China
Research, which appeared in the scientific journal Movement Disorders, based on the eating habits of 126,000 people over almost 12 years of monitoring Parkinson’s, shows that following a plant-based diet rich in vegetables, legumes, nuts, and tea can reduce the risk of onset of the disease by 25%, especially in older subjects

Veronesi again “Eating meat increases the chances of incurring many serious diseases (some potentially fatal). I am convinced that it is impossible to count the number of problems that we could avoid if we consumed less meat “furthermore” in general, 30% of cancers are due to a diet too rich in fats of animal origin. Furthermore, some forms, such as intestinal cancer, are directly related to meat consumption while others, such as endometrial cancer, are linked to obesity.”

In the West as well as in China, in recent years there has been an increase in the number of businesses offering consumers plant-based alternatives or plant-based meat and fish substitutes to be able to have a balanced diet for their body needs. We must remember that the trend of sourcing meat is a recent trend since not so much was consumed, the meat was very expensive and the farm animals were much leaner, not like those that now come from the intensive farms where they are wholesaled to meet constantly growing consumer demand. In the past, a large consumption of cereals, legumes, vegetables, tubers, and fruit was normal, precisely the foods consumed in the main areas of planet Earth called “blue zones” (Okinawa, Japan; Nuoro, Sardinia, Italy; Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica; Icaria, Greece; Loma Linda, California, United States), where there are the greatest concentrations of centenarians who age in excellent health.

Decades of studies have compared the lifestyles of people living in these areas to those in other parts of the world. As also confirmed by a series of documentaries by Dan Buettner, American National Geographic Fellow and New York Times-bestselling author, it has emerged that factors such as physical activity, a purpose in life, good social relationships, and a balanced diet with high consumption of legumes and low or absence of meat reduce the onset of diseases and extend life expectancy by several years. These studies therefore led to the question of whether it was possible to apply the principle of “blue zones” to improve the quality of life and extend its duration elsewhere too.

It is precisely in this series of documentaries that Singapore’s project is presented, which has decided to improve the living conditions of its inhabitants. Singapore has made areas available for physical activity, green paths, and improved public services to reduce individual use of the car, while also improving the quality of the city’s air. Plans have been promoted to bring families closer together or spaces have been created that can increase and strengthen the quality of social relationships. Furthermore, healthy food choices are promoted and encouraged, for the well-being of citizens and in such a way as to have less impact on the healthcare system.

Blue-Zone China

Singapore is also the only country where it is possible to taste meat made in vitro in some restaurants, that is, starting from animal cells that are grown and developed in the laboratory. “GOOD Meat” produced by the American start-up Eat Just, offers meat grown in the laboratory, in the family-run butcher shop Huber’s Butchery. The meat grown in the laboratory, according to those who had the opportunity to taste it, was liked, obviously, it is clear from the various comments of the tasters that a lot is linked and referred to personal taste since some would have liked a less dry consistency, others fattier, some said they tasted the chicken a lot, while others said it tasted very little to chicken, etc…

The process to create a portion of meat lasts four to six weeks. Among the company’s objectives is to find a version that satisfies as many people as possible, who are tasting this meat and to make it increasingly juicy. Furthermore, Eat Just hopes in the short term to expand the offering of its products and find new places where people can taste its meat in Singapore. It aims to drastically reduce its costs by 2030 so that it costs less than chicken, beef, and pork grown on farms.

It is important to underline that cultured meat is designed for people who do not want to give up eating meat, so it is not part of a vegetarian or vegan diet. It is meat that has a minimum ethical and environmental impact capable of eliminating animal suffering, being sustainable, and combating climate change. For this reason, it is also called “clean meat”.

More than 17 companies producing plant-based meat are active in Singapore, and according to an analysis by the Good Food Institute, another 36 are developing alternative proteins in the laboratory, such as fish, and milk.

Using nutrient-rich food waste, such as soybean skin, wheat stalk, and brewers’ spent grain, scientists at Nanyang Technological University (NTU) have been able to grow fungi. Consumers may soon be able to purchase a novel alternative protein manufactured from fungi that is superior to plant-based meat replacements in terms of health, flavor, and sustainability. By 2024, the researchers hope to commercialize their alternative. It is more nutrient-dense than substances frequently found in plant-based meat substitutes, such as peas, chickpeas, wheat, gluten, and soy, according to Professor William Chen. Furthermore, the mushrooms grown at NTU fruit far faster than those grown commercially, which typically take around a month. Prof. Chen stated that fungi-based proteins may be much less expensive to create than plant-based meat. “In addition, being naturally rich in protein and micronutrients like minerals and vitamins, with a texture and taste profile similar to that of real meat, a lot less processing would be needed to convert the fungi into alternative protein, which also helps bring down production costs,” he underlined. Around 39 million tonnes of used grains and 14 million tonnes of soy bean skin, or “okara,” are thought to be dumped into landfills annually, where they degrade and increase greenhouse gas emissions. The NTU team is working with The FoodBowl, a food-processing facility backed by the New Zealand government to enable food entrepreneurs and start-ups create, scale up, and commercialize innovative goods to an international level, to scale up the fungal cultivation approach.

Shrimp meat has been manufactured in a lab by Shiok Meats, based in Singapore. In addition, the business wants to manufacture crab and lobster. Sandhya Sriram, Ka Yi Ling, and a group of scientists are leading the initiative. Shiok Meats, name is a term used in Singaporean slang to describe something delectable. Shiok’s own polls and at least one study indicate that Asians are more open to trying new cuisines than Westerners are, such as clean beef. Three-quarters of the shrimp produced worldwide is consumed in Asia. Shrimp’s simplicity, it just has one homogeneous muscle, unlike beef, pork, or chicken, is what captivated and drew Sriram to the crustacean. Professor William Chen, who is working on growing steak (re-creating recognizable butcher cuts with complex layers of muscles and fat) said “Think of it as a car. We’re able to make a basic sedan. But to make beef steak, we need to build a racing car.” Giants in the traditional meat sector like Li Ka-shing, one of the wealthiest businessmen in Hong Kong, as well as sizable investment funds like SoftBank and the Singapore government’s Temasak are among the industry’s financial sponsors.

Lab-grown meat production in China

While in the West countries like Italy are “suspicious” towards cultured meat, companies involved in the production of laboratory-grown meat communicate that their work would allow them to obtain meat which, in addition to reducing the ethical problems linked to animal suffering, furthermore, with the same nutritional value as that of farmed animals, it would pollute less and avoid using large quantities of land, water, feed, and antibiotics. All this, at a time when action must be taken to limit the damage of climate change, would have a significant impact on the planet and the health of its inhabitants.

In 2021, China’s population consumed 63 kg of meat annually. By 2030, China’s per capita meat consumption is expected to reach 93 kg if the upward trend in meat consumption continues. The Chinese government has pushed for a decrease in personal meat consumption because of environmental and health concerns. China has promised that its carbon emissions will reach their peak in 2030 and that it will be carbon neutral by the year 2060. Cows, chickens, pigs, and other animals are kept and consumed in large quantities, and this results in 14.5% of all global emissions that contribute to climate change. Additionally, the widespread usage of fertilizers and deforestation for livestock have negative ecological repercussions. The Chinese government now places a strong emphasis on agricultural policy as a means of achieving its environmental objectives. The new dietary recommendations put forth by the Chinese government aim to reduce meat consumption there by 50%. Li Junfeng, director general of China’s National Center on Climate Change Strategy and International Cooperation, commented: “Tackling climate change involves scientific judgment, political decisions, entrepreneurial support, but at last, it still relies on the involvement of the general public to change the consumption behavior in China. Every single one of us has to believe in the low-carbon concept and slowly adapt to it”.

Sun Baoguo, a member of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, proposed increased investment, regulation, and promotion of synthetic beef during the 2020 annual parliament. Since China has become one of the countries where meat consumption is constantly increasing, the Chinese government has decided to include cultured meat in the economic development plan. The Five-Year Agricultural Plan provides significant funding for the laboratory-produced meat sector. The National Natural Science Foundation of China has also awarded funding to several research teams working on alternative proteins, and the China Meat Food Research Center and the Beijing Academy of Food Sciences are working to 3D print cultured meat. The Ministry of Science and Technology has been providing funding for competitive research and development for initiatives involving alternative protein biomanufacturing since 2020. Chinese officials think that it is in the country’s best interests to produce cultivated meat. As China’s livestock industry is primarily dependent on imported soybeans, mainly from the United States, for use as animal feed, this is also motivated in part by supply chain and food security concerns. Therefore, many Chinese leaders view the development of synthetic proteins as a path toward achieving food independence.

China has opened its first large-scale cultured meat production plant in Shanghai. The biotechnology company CellX with the motto “Eat meat, not animals. Welcome to the future of animal proteins”. The goal is to bring cultivated chicken, beef, pork, fish and seafood meat to the international market in the United States and Singapore, for now, the only countries in the world to authorize its sale.


Topics: Vegetarianism in China, Chinese Vegetarian Traditions, Meatless Monday in China, Vegetarianism in Chinese History, Modern Vegetarian Movement in China, Health Effects of Meat Consumption in China, Transition from Yulin Dog Meat Festival to Sustainable Nutrition, Celebrating World Vegetarian Day in China, China’s Evolution Towards Sustainable Nutrition, Ancient and Modern Vegetarian Practices in China

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